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Austrian Navy Innovations VideoTEAM INGOLF - Austrian Navy
Naval Aviation used modified German planes and also local variants or domestic planes. These models were the Fokker A. III and E.
III and later D. I and D. I, Aviatik D. I, Albatros D. III, Phönix D. I, or Lohner L. When the head of the General Staff Admiral Haus, obtained the vote for a new, more ambitious naval plan, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo.
Dispersed in between the Mediterranean and the German coast, the fleet gathered in Pola to escort German naval forces including the Goeben and the Breslau under the orders of cons-Admiral Souchon.
War broke out with Italy in May 23, and did not helped matters. However, this episode led the entire fleet to conduct a single massive coastal bombardment.
During the rest of the conflict, the navy remained in the safe harbor of Pola, to guard any intrusion in the Adriatic where she had a ruling hand.
The only way out was to the credit of the new Chief of Staff Admiral Horthy after it has been found its submarine bases blocked including German UB-UC types because of the minefields of the Otranto area.
Horty decided in a raid in full force, committing the brand new Szent Istvan. However during the night, the latter was sunk by torpedoes from an Italian MAS, and the whole operation was canceled.
The only effective raids were those of the U-Bootes, destroyers and torpedo boats, and also naval aviation. The latter was developed in the s, taking advantage of the good weather of the Adriatic.
River monitors were also frequently called on the Danube against Serbia. It should also be noted that like Germany, Austria-Hungary knew pro-communist riots in the fleet later in the war.
In , October 5, the crew of the TB11 was captured and the officers deserted in Italy. Mandatory reserve training was abolished. Since then the army reserve battalions Miliz are suffering from a lack of new reservists and are therefore overaging.
Under a law, conscientious objectors can be assigned work as medical orderlies, or other occupations in lieu of military service. Exemptions from service are liberally granted—in about 12, persons were exempted, a great increase over the total of 4, The increase occurred after a new law, valid only for and , no longer required young men to present their objections to the military in a credible way.
Previously, that had not been the case. In , for example, two young men rejected by the alternate service commission on the grounds that they did not present their beliefs in a credible manner were sentenced to prison terms of three months and one month, respectively.
Conscripts may attain the rank of private first class by the completion of initial training. Those with leadership potential may serve a longer period to obtain noncommissioned officer NCO status in the militia.
Those volunteering for the career service can, after three to four years, apply to attend the NCO academy and later a senior NCO course to qualify as warrant officers.
Both regular and militia officer candidates undergo a one-year program of basic training. After a further three years, regular officer candidates attending the military academy at Wiener Neustadt and militia officer candidates undergoing periodic intensified refresher training qualify as second lieutenants.
The reserve obligation of conscripts generally ends by the time they reach their mid-thirties; NCOs and officers usually end their reserve status at a later age depending on their rank and specialization.
By the early s, some 1. The military personnel system is an integral part of a comprehensive civil service system. The nine officer ranks from officer candidate through general correspond to grades I through IX of the civil service system.
The highest grade, IX, may be occupied by a section chief undersecretary , a career ambassador, or a three-star general. A grade VIII position may be held by a departmental counselor, a career minister, or a brigadier general.
Salary levels are the same for both civil and military personnel in the equivalent grades, although various allowances may be added, such as flight pay or hazardous-duty pay.
The system of promotion in the Austrian military, which offers no incentive for early retirement, means that the military is top-heavy with senior officers.
The New Army Structure, which is intended to result in many fewer active-duty and reserve commands, compounds the difficulty. Personnel changes can be implemented only gradually, as the surplus of officers shrinks by attrition.
In , the army had four officers of general rank, fifty-nine at the rank of brigadier general one star , colonels, and lieutenant colonels.
The education of career officers is conducted at the Maria Theresia Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt, forty-five kilometres south of Vienna, which was founded in Young men who have completed their university entrance requirements are eligible to compete for places.
The three-year course graduated students in At the National Defence Academy in Vienna, which has a curriculum comparable to those of the National Defence University and the Army War College in the United States, operational and troop commanders of field-grade rank study for three years in preparation for general staff and command positions.
Troop schools provide continuous specialized courses for officers and NCOs in artillery, air defence, armour, combat engineering, communications, and the like.
Women have been accepted for service in the Austrian armed forces since All service branches are open for female volunteers.
In a public opinion survey in , about 66 percent of those polled approved of opening the military to voluntary service by women; only nine percent favoured obligatory service.
Since the new service uniform with a six colour camouflage pattern is issued, but the old service uniform in olive is still widespread and will be taken out of service very slowly.
The air force uniform is identical, with the addition of wings worn on the right jacket breast—gold for officers and silver for enlisted personnel.
Branches of service are identified by beret colours: scarlet for the honour Guard; green for infantry; black for armour; cherry for airborne; and dark blue for quartermaster.
Insignia of rank are worn on the jacket lapel of the dress uniform silver stars on a green or gold shield and on the epaulets of the field uniform white, silver or gold stars on an olive drab field.
The Austrian military has a wide variety of equipment. Recently, Austria has spent considerable amounts of money modernizing its military arsenal.
Leopard 2 main battle tanks, Ulan and Pandur infantry fighting vehicles , C Hercules transport planes, S Black Hawk utility helicopters, and Eurofighter Typhoon multi-purpose combat aircraft have been purchased, along with new helicopters to replace the inadequate ones used after the Galtür Avalanche.
Of the eight enlisted ranks, only a sergeant Wachtmeister or above is considered an NCO. There are two warrant officer ranks—Offiziersstellvertreter and Vizeleutnant.
The lowest commissioned rank of officer candidate Fähnrich —is held by cadets at the military academy and by reserve officers in training for the rank second lieutenant.
To maintain conformity with grade levels in the civil service, there are only two ranks of general in the personnel system—brigadier general one star and general lieutenant three stars.
However, the ranks of major general two stars and full general equivalent to four stars are accorded to officers holding particular military commands.
Cultural property protection has been firmly anchored in the Austrian Armed Forces since There are national and international assignments and numerous collaborations, including with United Nations peacekeeping.
During training as well as at the Theresian Military Academy , intensive reference is made to the protection of cultural property and the international experience of Blue Shield International.
At the end of , he ordered two screw-propeller frigates constructed at Trieste. Simply getting to the North Sea was a victory in itself.
The British were not fond of having foreign navies so close to home, and they looked unfavorably on the Austro-German attack on Denmark. The government in Vienna called his bluff, but the British attitude to the war would cause Habsburg headaches.
Once the flames were extinguished, Tegetthoff returned to find the Danish who had also suffered heavy damage gone. Although, tactically a draw, the Danish did not renew their blockade of Hamburg, allowing Austria to claim victory.
After the war with Denmark ended, Austrian Foreign Minister Mennsdorf-Pouilly signed an agreement with General von Roon which agreed to let the armaments factory Krupp sell naval artillery to the Austrians, although Prussia declined to purchase any Austrian built ships.
On July 3, , Prussia utterly defeated the Austrians in the north at Königgrätz, but in the south Austria was victorious on land and sea.
One week earlier, the Austrian army had routed the Italian army at Custoza. At sea, the Austrian Navy defeated an Italian invasion fleet at the battle of Lissa on July 20, Lissa was the first major armored fleet action in history.
A superior Italian fleet was beaten and forced to withdrawal from the Dalmatian coast. With the victory of Lissa your fleet becomes enrolled amongst those whose flag is the symbol of glory, and your name is added to the list of naval heroes of all time.
It was not until the Spanish-American War almost thirty years later, that the ram would again lose favor. Due to the conditions - twilight etc, MAS 21 probably attacked her and not 'Tegetthof' as noted above.
The information has not been confirmed offically. Information is again courtesy of Danijel Zavratnik from Slovenia.
All three ships, serving as the 2nd Battle Division, First Battle Squadron, took part in a May shore bombardment of the Italian coast with the three dreadnoughts, but thereafter remained inactive at Pola as a fleet-in-being.
August Strength 6. In August , all six pre-dreadnoughts formed the Second Battle Squadron. August Strength 4.
All three ships formed the 5th Battle Division, but remained in reserve. Based with the 'Budapest' at Trieste and used in support of the Austrian army fighting on the Italian front, the two old ships were preparing to carry out a shore bombardment.
Two of the 16 ton, cm torpedo-armed motor boats, 'Mas. Cutting through the heavy hawsers that protected the anchorage the two craft broke through and launched their torpedoes.
They both returned safely to Venice. Kaiser Franz Joseph I soon decommissioned as harbour defence ship. Most of her guns and guns crews were landed as the 'Elisabeth' Battery for the defence of the German naval base during the Japanese siege.
The largely disarmed old cruiser was scuttled five days before the final surrender on the 7th November.
Severely damaged, she blew up and sank around ten minutes later, but most of her crew of reportedly got ashore in their boats.
Wartime Additions 3. Helgoland took part in the December raid into the Adriatic to interfere with the Allied evacuation of Serbian forces.
All three cruisers took part in the May attack on the British drifters patrolling the Otranto net barrage. August Strength Believed based at Cattaro Kotor at the time.
Crete remained in an anomalous position until finally ceded to Greece in In June they helped hold the Tianjin railway against Boxer forces, and also fired upon several armed junks on the Hai River near Tong-Tcheou.
They also took part in the seizure of the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and the boarding and capture of four Chinese destroyers by Capt.
In all k. After the uprising a cruiser was maintained permanently on the China station, and a detachment of marines was deployed at the embassy in Peking.
Germany enhanced her naval infrastructure, building new dry docks , and enlarging the Kiel Canal to enable larger vessels to navigate it.
However, that was not the only European naval arms race. Imperial Russia too had commenced building a new modern navy  following their naval defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.
Kriegsmarine had another prominent supporter at that time in the face of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Like other imperial naval enthusiasts before him, Franz Ferdinand had a keen private interest in the fleet and was an energetic campaigner for naval matters.
The Marine budget for was substantially enlarged to permit major refits of the existing fleet and more dreadnoughts. These battleships, constructed later than many of the earlier British and German dreadnoughts, were considerably ahead in some aspects of design, especially of both the French and Italian navies, and were constructed with Marconi wireless rooms as well as anti-aircraft armaments.
It has been claimed they were the first battleships in the world equipped with torpedo launchers built into their bows.
Between 22 and 28 May Tegetthoff , accompanied by Viribus Unitis , made a courtesy visit to the British Mediterranean fleet in Malta.
In , after allowing the navies of other countries to pioneer submarine developments, the Austro-Hungarian Navy ordered the Austrian Naval Technical Committee MTK to produce a submarine design.
The January design developed by the MTK and other designs submitted by the public as part of a design competition were all rejected by the Navy as impracticable.
They instead opted to order two submarines each of designs by Simon Lake , Germaniawerft , and John Philip Holland for a competitive evaluation.
The two Germaniawerft submarines comprised the U-3 class. The U-3 -class was an improved version of Germaniawerft's design for the Imperial German Navy 's first U-boat, U-1 ,  and featured a double hull with internal saddle tanks.
The Germaniawerft engineers refined the design's hull shape through extensive model trials. U-3 and U-4 were both laid down on 12 March at Germaniawerft in Kiel and were launched in August and November , respectively.
The U-5 -class boats had a single- hulled design with a teardrop shape that bore a strong resemblance to modern nuclear submarines.
During the First World War , the navy saw some action, but prior to the Italian entry spent much of its time in its major naval base at Pola, except for small skirmishes.
Following the Italian declaration of war the mere fact of its existence tied up the Italian Navy and the French Navy in the Mediterranean for the duration of the war.
Following the declaration of war in August the French and Montenegrin forces attempted to cause havoc at Cattaro , KuK Kriegsmarine's southernmost base in the Adriatic.
Main targets were the cities of Ancona , Rimini , Vieste , Manfredonia , Barletta and bridges and railway tracks along the coast. Until the Austro-Hungarian fleet was as yet largely undamaged.
The presence of three Allied navies in the Mediterranean made any measures of their co-ordination and common doctrine extraordinarily difficult.
The Mediterranean was divided into eleven zones, of which the British naval authorities were responsible for four, the French for four, and the Italians for three.
Differing command structures, national pride and the language barrier all contributed to a lack of cohesion in the application of Allied sea power, producing a situation in which German and Austro-Hungarian U-boat attacks on shipping flourished.
In December a k. Kriegsmarine cruiser squadron attempted to make a raid on the Serbian troops evacuating Albania. After sinking a French submarine and bombarding the town of Durazzo the squadron ran into a minefield, sinking one destroyer and damaging another.
The next day the group ran into a squadron of British , French , and Italian cruisers and destroyers. The resulting battle left two Austro-Hungarians destroyers sunk and inflicted light damage upon another, while dealing only minor damage to the Allied cruisers and destoyers present.
A three-power conference on 28 April , at Corfu , discussed a more offensive strategy in the Adriatic, but the Italians were not prepared to consider any big ship operations, considering the size of the Austro-Hungarian fleet.
The British and French seemed reluctant to move alone against the Austro-Hungarians, especially if it meant a full-scale battle.
But the Austrians were not inactive either, and even as the Allied conference was in session they were planning an offensive operation against the Otranto Barrage.
Throughout the Adriatic remained the key to the U-boat war on shipping in the Mediterranean. Cattaro, some miles above the narrow Straits of Otranto, was the main U-boat base from which almost the entire threat to Mediterranean shipping came.
The Otranto Barrage , constructed by the Allies with up to naval drifters , used to deploy and patrol submarine nets, and 30 motor launches, all equipped with depth charges, was designed to stop the passage of U-boats from Cattaro.
However, this failed to do so, and from its inception in , the barrage had caught only two U-boats, the Austrian U-6 and the German UB out of hundreds of possible passages.
However, the barrage effectively meant that the Austro-Hungarian surface fleet could not leave the Adriatic Sea unless it was willing to give battle to the blocking forces.
This, and as the war drew on bringing supply difficulties especially coal, plus a fear of mines, limited the Austro-Hungarian navy to shelling the Italian and Serbian coastlines.
There had already been four small-scale Austro-Hungarian attacks on the barrage, on 11 March, 21 and 25 April and 5 May , but none of them amounted to anything.
Now greater preparations were made, with two U-boats despatched to lay mines off Brindisi with a third patrolling the exits in case Anglo-Italian forces were drawn out during the attack.
An Italian convoy of three ships, escorted by the destroyer Borea , was approaching Valona , when, out of the darkness, the Austrians fell upon them.
Borea was left sinking. Of the three merchant ships, one loaded with ammunition was hit and blown up, a second set on fire, and the third hit. The two Austrian destroyers then steamed off northward.
They then sailed through the barrage before turning back to attack it. During this battle the Allies lost two destroyers, 14 drifters and one glider while the Austro-Hungarian navy suffered only minor damage Novara ' s steam supply pipes were damaged by a shell and few losses.
The Austro-Hungarian navy returned to its bases up north in order to repair and re-supply, and the allies had to rebuild the blockade.
In February a mutiny started in the 5th Fleet stationed at the Gulf of Cattaro naval base. Sailors on up to 40 ships joined the mutiny over demands for better treatment and a call to end the war.
The mutiny failed to spread beyond Cattaro, and within three days a loyal naval squadron had arrived. Together with coastal artillery the squadron fired several shells into a few of the rebel's ships, and then assaulted them with k.
Marine Infantry in a short and successful skirmish. About sailors were imprisoned, dozens were court-martialed, and four seamen were executed, including the leader of the uprising, Franz Rasch, a Bohemian.
Given the huge crews required in naval vessels of that time this is an indication that the mutiny was limited to a minority. A second attempt to force the blockade took place in June under the command of Rear-Admiral Horthy.
The element of surprise lost, Horthy broke off his attack. However just after 6 a. The event was filmed from a sister ship. In , in order to avoid having to give the fleet to the victors, the Austrian Emperor handed down the entire Austro-Hungarian Navy and merchant fleet, with all harbours, arsenals and shore fortifications to the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
The state of SCS was proclaimed officially on 29 October but never recognized by other countries. Diplomatic notes were sent to the governments of France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and Russia, to notify them that the State of SCS was not at war with any of them and that the Council had taken over the entire Austro-Hungarian fleet; no response was provided, and for all practical purposes the war went on unchanged.
Austria asked for an armistice on 29 October; after a few days' negotiation and the signatures, the armistice entered into force on 4 November.
Using limpet mines , they then sank the anchored Viribus Unitis , with considerable loss of life, as well as the freighter Wien.
Supplementary bases included: the busy port of Trieste and the natural harbour of Cattaro now Kotor , Montenegro.
Both Trieste and Pola had major shipbuilding facilities. The city of Pola was also the site of the central church of the navy "Stella Maris" k.
The Austro-Hungarian Naval Academy k. Marine-Akademie was located in Fiume now Rijeka , Croatia. Trieste was also the headquarters of the merchant line Österreichischer Lloyd founded in and, later, Lloyd Triestino; now Italia Marittima , whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanita.
By , Österreichischer Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of , tons. Seeflugwesen was established. In it was rechristened the k.Submarines - French 'Circe', Italian 'Nereide'. The fears only ceased when Britain declared she would not recognize Italian claims to Dalmatia and Istria. The most notable Glücksspirale Gewinner Forum imposed directed naval officers to learn German. The only exception Kader Japan Wm 2021 the 9th Panzergrenadier Brigade, which carried the number of the Vorarlberg Military Command in the extreme West of the country, but was based near Vienna in the East of the country and manned by conscripts Parimatch Vienna. However, caught in the maelstrom of the Napoleonic Wars, Austria did not have the finances to both fight Napoleon and build a powerful navy. Diplomatic notes were sent to the governments of France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and Russia, Betburger notify them that the State of SCS was not at war with any of them and that the Council had taken over the entire Austro-Hungarian fleet; no response was provided, Glücksspirale Gewinner Forum for all practical purposes the war went on unchanged. Venice's naval forces and facilities were also handed over to Austria and became the basis of Fetter Hase formation of the future Austrian Navy. Seeflugwesen was established. Notable aircraft Pokerstars It the service were the following:. Geologischen Bundesanstalt. He quickly toppled the Kingdom of the Two Siciliesthe largest state in the region in a matter of months. Following the Italian declaration of war the mere fact of its existence tied up the Italian Navy and the French Navy in the Mediterranean for the duration of the war. Main article: Boxer Rebellion. Defence forces of the European Union. Originally German 'UB' and 'UB' from , but sold to Austrian Navy and recommissioned in July Note - My thanks to Danijel Zavratnik from Slovenia for noting that most of the place names are Italian spellings and that many have changed since World War 1. The Austro-Hungarian Navy can easily find its origin in the will of Emperor Franz Joseph 1, ascended the throne in , to strengthen the Nordic influences in his navy, so far influenced by the Italian shipbuilding (in particular Trieste). Rear Admiral Von Dahlerup, a Danish formed the Columbia school, was appointed Chief of Staff of the Navy. Austrian Empire Navy Rum is produced in small Austrian Empire Navy Rum Reserva is produced in smallbatches, using matured Rum from a wide range of hand-selected barrels. Aged in American and French oak barrels, this contemporary gem is an elegant medium-bodied Barbados Rum, voluptuous and exquisite with an exceptional bouquet.