Sparta: War of Empires ist ein strategisches MMO-Videospiel, in dem Spieler vor der Aufgabe stehen, ihre eigene Stadt zu erbauen, Truppen auszubilden und in. Ursprünglich umfassten Sparta einmal fünf Dörfer. Im 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eroberten die Spartaner das Umland Lakonien. Dieses Land war sehr fruchtbar und. Sparta war in diesem Bündnissystem Hegemonialmacht. Für die Bündner bestand die Pflicht zur Heeresfolge. Sie genossen dafür Schutz bei Angriffen von.
In Sparta war alles anders!Sparta: War of Empires. Gefällt Mal · Personen sprechen darüber. Enter the ancient mythical world of Sparta – War of Empires™. Command your. Sparta: War of Empires ist ein strategisches MMO-Videospiel, in dem Spieler vor der Aufgabe stehen, ihre eigene Stadt zu erbauen, Truppen auszubilden und in. Ursprünglich umfassten Sparta einmal fünf Dörfer. Im 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. eroberten die Spartaner das Umland Lakonien. Dieses Land war sehr fruchtbar und.
Sparta War Spartan Society Video300 Spartans vs 10000 Persians Siege of Sparta Rome 2 Total War Sparta: War of Empires ist ein Freemium-MMO Strategie-Videospiel, des Spieleentwicklers Plarium für Webbrowser. Das Spiel wurde im März ins Leben gerufen. Wir schreiben das 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.: Das antike Griechenland ist in Aufruhr und unterliegt der Bedrohung von Xerxes und seiner persischen Armee. Sparta: War of Empires ist ein strategisches MMO-Videospiel, in dem Spieler vor der Aufgabe stehen, ihre eigene Stadt zu erbauen, Truppen auszubilden und in. Sparta, im Süden der Peloponnes gelegen, war in der Antike der Hauptort der Landschaft Lakonien und des Staates der Lakedaimonier. Sein Name wird im. God of War: Ghost of Sparta is an action-adventure game developed by Ready at Dawn and published by Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE). It was first released for the PlayStation Portable (PSP) handheld console on November 2, The game is the sixth installment in the God of War series, a prequel to God of War II, and the fourth chronologically. Sparta played no active part in the Achaean War in BCE when the Achaean League was defeated by the Roman general Lucius Mummius. Subsequently, Sparta became a free city under Roman rule, some of the institutions of Lycurgus were restored,  and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan. Sparta started this war with the strategic initiative, however, Sparta failed to achieve its aims. Early on, a botched attack on Piraeus by the Spartan commander Sphodrias undermined Sparta's position by driving Athens into the arms of Thebes. . Sparta was a warrior society in ancient Greece that reached the height of its power after defeating rival city-state Athens in the Peloponnesian War ( B.C.). Spartan culture was centered on. Shortly after the end of the Greco-Persian War, a series of skirmishes broke out between Athens and Sparta, and historians often call this the “First Peloponnesian War.” Although it didn’t reach anywhere near the scale of the conflict that was to come, and the two sides rarely fought one another directly, these series of conflicts help.
Although Spartan women were not active in the military, they were educated and enjoyed more status and freedom than other Greek women.
Because Spartan men were professional soldiers, all manual labor was done by a slave class, the Helots. Sparta, also known as Lacedaemon, was an ancient Greek city-state located primarily in the present-day region of southern Greece called Laconia.
All healthy male Spartan citizens participated in the compulsory state-sponsored education system, the Agoge, which emphasized obedience, endurance, courage and self-control.
Spartan men devoted their lives to military service, and lived communally well into adulthood. Spartans, who were outnumbered by the Helots, often treated them brutally and oppressively in an effort to prevent uprisings.
Spartans would humiliate the Helots by doing such things as forcing them to get debilitatingly drunk on wine and then make fools of themselves in public.
This practice was also intended to demonstrate to young people how an adult Spartan should never act, as self-control was a prized trait.
Methods of mistreatment could be far more extreme: Spartans were allowed to kill Helots for being too smart or too fit, among other reasons.
Unlike such Greek city-states as Athens, a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, Sparta was centered on a warrior culture.
Male Spartan citizens were allowed only one occupation: soldier. Indoctrination into this lifestyle began early. Spartan boys started their military training at age 7, when they left home and entered the Agoge.
The boys lived communally under austere conditions. They were subjected to continual physical, competitions which could involve violence , given meager rations and expected to become skilled at stealing food, among other survival skills.
The teenage boys who demonstrated the most leadership potential were selected for participation in the Crypteia, which acted as a secret police force whose primary goal was to terrorize the general Helot population and murder those who were troublemakers.
At age 20, Spartan males became full-time soldiers, and remained on active duty until age In the phalanx, the army worked as a unit in a close, deep formation, and made coordinated mass maneuvers.
No one soldier was considered superior to another. Going into battle, a Spartan soldier, or hoplite, wore a large bronze helmet, breastplate and ankle guards, and carried a round shield made of bronze and wood, a long spear and sword.
Spartan warriors were also known for their long hair and red cloaks. Spartan women had a reputation for being independent-minded, and enjoyed more freedoms and power than their counterparts throughout ancient Greece.
While they played no role in the military, female Spartans often received a formal education, although separate from boys and not at boarding schools.
In part to attract mates, females engaged in athletic competitions, including javelin-throwing and wrestling, and also sang and danced competitively.
Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons.
Thus the shield was symbolic of the individual soldier's subordination to his unit, his integral part in its success, and his solemn responsibility to his comrades in arms — messmates and friends, often close blood relations.
According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. He observed:. It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage.
Those like the Spartans who concentrate on the one and ignore the other in their education turn men into machines and in devoting themselves to one single aspect of city's life, end up making them inferior even in that.
One of the most persistent myths about Sparta that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands.
In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.
Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain, and figs. These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizen's kleros and were tended to by helots.
Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess. These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen.
All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. The custom was to capture women for marriage The so-called 'bridesmaid' took charge of the captured girl.
She first shaved her head to the scalp, then dressed her in a man's cloak and sandals, and laid her down alone on a mattress in the dark.
The bridegroom — who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always — first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.
The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways.
One of them decidedly supports the need to disguise the bride as a man in order to help the bridegroom consummate the marriage, so unaccustomed were men to women's looks at the time of their first intercourse.
The "abduction" may have served to ward off the evil eye , and the cutting of the wife's hair was perhaps part of a rite of passage that signaled her entrance into a new life.
Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world.
The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers. The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents.
Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.
Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia "Festival of Nude Youths".
In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives.
Other unmarried or childless men might even request another man's wife to bear his children if she had previously been a strong child bearer.
The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.
Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow male citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public.
Plato goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it came to philosophical discussion. Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands.
Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit an epikleros , the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.
Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.
She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning.
Laconophilia is love or admiration of Sparta and its culture or constitution. Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in rival Athens.
In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice.
With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance Europe , Laconophilia re-appeared, for example in the writings of Machiavelli.
The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia [was] the noblest and best city governed that ever was".
He commended it as a model for England. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau contrasted Sparta favourably with Athens in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences , arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more sophisticated Athenian life.
Sparta was also used as a model of austere purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France. A German racist strain of Laconophilia was initiated by Karl Otfried Müller , who linked Spartan ideals to the supposed racial superiority of the Dorians, the ethnic sub-group of the Greeks to which the Spartans belonged.
In the 20th century, this developed into Fascist admiration of Spartan ideals. Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live".
He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure The subjugation of , Helots by 6, Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans.
Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, were influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly in education.
Tabenkin , a founding father of the Kibbutz movement and the Palmach strikeforce, prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".
In modern times, the adjective "spartan" means simple, frugal, avoiding luxury and comfort. Sparta also features prominently in modern popular culture , most famously the Battle of Thermopylae see Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient Greek city-state. For modern-day Sparta, see Sparta, Laconia. For other uses, see Sparta disambiguation.
For other uses, see Spartan disambiguation. City-state in ancient Greece. The letter lambda was used by the Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon.
Ephors Gerousia. Main article: Menelaion. Main article: History of Sparta. Main article: Spartan Constitution. Main article: Helots. Main article: Perioeci.
Main article: Agoge. Main articles: Spartan army and Spartiate. Main article: Women in ancient Sparta.
Main article: Laconophilia. The metics, i. There an amphitheatre was built in the 3rd century AD to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.
History of western philosophy. Word study tool of Ancient languages. University of Oslo. In Bakker, Egbert J. A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language.
Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
Archived from the original on Retrieved Lefkowitz, Mary R. Black Athena Revisited. The University of North Carolina Press.
Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. A Dictionary of Ancient Geography [etc.
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By Agnes Savill. In Pohlenz, M. Tusculanae Disputationes in Latin. Leipzig: Teubner. At the Perseus Project. Hellenistic and Roman Sparta.
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Infanticide and the Value of Life. Female figures in this legendary ancestry include the nymph Taygete mother of Lacedaemon , Sparta the daughter of Eurotas and Eurydice of Argos grandmother of Perseus.
Later the Achaeans , associated with Mycenaean Greece , immigrated from the north and replaced the Lelegians as ruling tribe.
Helen, daughter of Zeus and Leda , would marry Menelaos and thus invite the Atreidae to the Laconian throne. In the end the Heracleidae , commonly identified with the Dorians , would seize the land and the throne of Laconia and found the city-state of Sparta proper.
The last Atreidae Tisamenus and Penthilus , according to myth, would lead the Achaeans to Achaea and Asia minor , whereas the Heraclids Eurysthenes and Procles founded the Spartan kingly families of the Agiad and Eurypontid dynasties respectively.
The Pre-Dorian, supposedly Mycenaean , civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age , when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north marched into Peloponnese, where they were called Dorians and subjugating the local tribes, settled there.
Tradition describes how, some sixty years after the Trojan War , a Dorian migration from the north took place and eventually led to the rise of classical Sparta.
Hence skeptics like Karl Julius Beloch have denied that any such event occurred. Archeologically, Sparta itself begins to show signs of settlement only around BC, some years after the collapse of Mycenaean civilization.
The dual kingship may originate in the fusion of the first two villages. Following that, there was a significant recovery, and this growth in population is likely to have been more marked in Sparta, as it was situated in the most fertile part of the plain.
Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Spartans experienced a period of lawlessness and civil strife, later testified by both Herodotus and Thucydides.
It is during the reign of King Charillos ,  that most ancient sources place the life of Lycurgus. Indeed, the Spartans ascribed their subsequent success to Lycurgus, who instituted his reforms at a time when Sparta was weakened by internal dissent and lacked the stability of a united and well-organized community.
Lazenby suggests, that the dual monarchy may date from this period as a result of a fusion of the four villages of Sparta which had, up until then, formed two factions of the villages of Pitana-Mesoa against the villages of Limnai-Konoura.
According to this view, the Kings, who tradition says ruled before this time, were either totally mythical or at best factional chieftains.
The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state.
The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the plain of Sparta, was secure from early on: it was never fortified.
Sparta shared the plain with Amyklai which lay to the south and was one of the few places to survive from Mycaenean times and was likely to be its most formidable neighbor.
Hence the tradition that Sparta, under its kings Archelaos and Charillos moved north to secure the upper Eurotas valley is plausible.
It is probable that the inhabitants of Geronthrae were driven out while those of Amyklai were simply subjugated to Sparta.
Tyrtaeus tells that the war to conquer the Messenians , their neighbors on the west, led by Theopompus , lasted 19 years and was fought in the time of the fathers of our fathers.
If this phrase is to be taken literally, it would mean that the war occurred around the end of the 8th century BC or the beginning of the 7th.
However, in the opinion of Kennell, a fragment of Tyrtaeus published in gives us some confidence that it really occurred probably in the later 7th century.
Whether Sparta dominated the regions to its east at the time is less settled. According to Herodotus the Argives ' territory once included the whole of Cynuria the east coast of the Peloponnese and the island of Cythera.
During the following centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequaled. Early in the 6th century BC, the Spartan kings Leon and Agasicles made a vigorous attack on Tegea , the most powerful of the Arcadian cities.
For some time Sparta had no success against Tegea and suffered a notable defeat at the Battle of the Fetters —the name reflected Spartan intentions to force the Tegea to recognise it as hegemon.
Forrest, hesitantly attributes this change to Ephor Chilon. In BC, King Cleomenes I , launched what was intended to be a final settling of accounts with the city of Argos — an invasion, with the capture of the city itself, as the objective.
Croesus of Lydia had formed an alliance with it. Scythian envoys sought its aid to stem the invasion of Darius ; to Sparta, the Greeks of Asia Minor appealed to withstand the Persian advance and to aid the Ionian Revolt ; Plataea asked for Sparta's protection; Megara acknowledged its supremacy; and at the time of the Persian invasion under Xerxes no state questioned Sparta's right to lead the Greek forces on land or at sea.
At the end of the 6th century BC, Sparta made its first intervention north of the Isthmus when it aided in overthrowing the Athenian tyrant Hippias in BC.
King Cleomenes turned up in Attica with a small body of troops to back the more conservative Isagoras, whom Cleomenes successfully installed in power.
The Athenians, however, soon tired of the foreign king, and Cleomenes found himself expelled by the Athenians.
Cleomenes then proposed an expedition of the entire Peloponnesian League, with himself and his co-King Demaratos in command and the aim of setting up Isagoras as tyrant of Athens.
The specific aims of the expedition were kept secret. The secrecy proved disastrous and as dissension broke out the real aims became clearer. First the Corinthians departed.
Then a row broke out between Cleomenes and Demaratos with Demaratos too, deciding to go home. It also seems to have changed the nature of the Peloponnesian League.
From that time, major decisions were discussed. Sparta was still in charge, but it now had to rally its allies in support of its decisions.
After hearing a plea for help from Athens who were facing the Persians at Marathon in BC, Sparta decided to honor its laws and wait until the moon was full to send an army.
As a result, Sparta's army arrived at Marathon after the battle had been won by the Athenians. In the second campaign, conducted ten years later by Xerxes , Sparta faced the same dilemma.
The Persians inconveniently chose to attack during the Olympic truce which the Spartans felt they must honor. Other Greek states which lacked such scruples were making a major effort to assemble a fleet — how could Sparta not contribute on land when others were doing so much on sea?
However, there are indications that Sparta's religious scruples were merely a cover. From this interpretation, Sparta believed that the defense of Thermopylae was hopeless and wished to make a stand at the Isthmus, but they had to go through the motions or Athens might ally itself with Persia.
The loss of Athens's fleet would simply be too great a loss to the Greek resistance to be risked. In BC, a small force of Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans led by King Leonidas approximately were full Spartiates, were Thespians, and were Thebans; these numbers do not reflect casualties incurred prior to the final battle , made a legendary last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae against the massive Persian army, inflicting very high casualties on the Persian forces before finally being encircled.
The decisive victory of Salamis did not change Sparta's essential dilemma. Ideally, they would wish to fight at the Isthmus where they would avoid the risk of their infantry being caught in the open by the Persian cavalry.
However, in BC, the remaining Persian forces under Mardonius devastated Attica, Athenian pressure forced Sparta to lead an advance.
In the resulting Battle of Plataea the Greeks under the generalship of the Spartan Pausanias overthrew the lightly armed Persian infantry, killing Mardonius.
The superior weaponry, strategy, and bronze armour of the Greek hoplites and their phalanx again proved their worth one year later when Sparta assembled at full strength and led a Greek alliance against the Persians at the battle of Plataea.
Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.
When this victory led to a revolt of the Ionian Greeks it was Sparta that rejected their admission to the Hellenic alliance.
Sparta proposed that they should abandon their homes in Anatolia and settle in the cities that had supported the Persians. However, his arrogant behavior forced his recall.
Pausanias had so alienated the Ionians that they refused to accept the successor, Dorcis , that Sparta sent to replace him. Instead those newly liberated from Persia turned to Athens.
In later Classical times, Sparta along with Athens , Thebes , and Persia had been the main powers fighting for supremacy against each other.
As a result of the Peloponnesian War , Sparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of its power Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the elite Athenian navy.
By the end of the 5th century BC, it stood out as a state which had defeated the Athenian Empire and had invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony.
The Sparta earthquake of BC destroyed much of Sparta. Historical sources suggest that the death toll may have been as high as 20,, although modern scholars suggest that this figure is likely an exaggeration.
The earthquake sparked a revolt of the helots, the slave class of Spartan society. Events surrounding this revolt led to an increase in tension between Sparta and their rival Athens and the cancellation of a treaty between them.
After the troops of a relief expedition dispatched by conservative Athenians were sent back with cold thanks, Athenian democracy itself fell into the hands of reformers and moved toward a more populist and anti-Spartan policy.
Therefore, this earthquake is cited by historical sources as one of the key events that led up to the First Peloponnesian War.
Sparta's attention was at this time, fully occupied by troubles nearer home; such as the revolt of Tegea in about — BC , rendered all the more formidable by the participation of Argos.
In the immediate aftermath, the helots saw an opportunity to rebel. This was followed by the siege of Ithome which the rebel helots had fortified.
Sparta began to fear that the Athenian troops might make common cause with the rebels. Providing the official justification that since the initial assault on Ithome had failed, what was now required was a blockade, a task the Spartans did not need Athenian help with.
In Athens, this snub resulted in Athens breaking off its alliance with Sparta and allying with its enemy, Argos. Paul Cartledge hazards that the revolt of helots and perioeci led the Spartans to reorganize their army and integrate the perioeci into the citizen hoplite regiments.
Certainly a system where citizens and non-citizens fought together in the same regiments was unusual for Greece. He agrees that the integration of perioeci and citizens occurred sometime between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars but doesn't regard that as a significant stage.
The Spartans had been using non-citizens as hoplites well before that and the proportion did not change.
He doubts that the Spartans ever subscribed to the citizen only hoplite force ideal, so beloved by writers such as Aristotle. The Peloponnesian Wars were the protracted armed conflicts, waged on sea and land, of the last half of the 5th century BC between the Delian League controlled by Athens and the Peloponnesian League dominated by Sparta over control of the other Greek city-states.
The Delian League is often called "the Athenian Empire" by scholars. The Peloponnesian League believed it was defending itself against Athenian aggrandizement.
The war had ethnic overtones that generally but not always applied: the Delian League included populations of Athenians and Ionians while the Peloponnesian League was mainly of Dorians , except that a third power, the Boeotians , had sided tentatively with the Peloponnesian League.
They were never fully trusted by the Spartans. Ethnic animosity was fueled by the forced incorporation of small Dorian states into the Delian League, who appealed to Sparta.
Motivations, however, were complex, including local politics and considerations of wealth. In the end Sparta won, but it declined soon enough and was soon embroiled with wars with Boeotia and Persia, until being overcome finally by Macedon.
When the First Peloponnesian War broke out, Sparta was still preoccupied suppressing the helot revolt,  hence its involvement was somewhat desultory.
However they then returned home giving the Athenians an opportunity to defeat the Boeotians at the battle of Oenophyta and so overthrowing Boeotia.
By contrast, however, Sparta sought a thirty-year peace with Argos to ensure that they could strike Athens unencumbered. Thus Sparta was fully able to exploit the situation when Megara , Boeotia and Euboea revolted, sending an army into Attica.
The war ended with Athens deprived of its mainland possessions but keeping its vast Aegean Empire intact. But the treaty was broken when Sparta warred with Euboea.
Within six years, Sparta was proposing to its allies to go to war with Athens in support of the rebellion in Samos.
On that occasion Corinth successfully opposed Sparta and they were voted down. However, according to Thucydides the real cause of the war was Sparta's fear of the growing power of Athens.
Sparta entered with the proclaimed goal of the "liberation of the Greeks" — an aim that required a total defeat of Athens.
Their method was to invade Attica in the hope of provoking Athens to give battle. Athens, meanwhile, planned a defensive war.
The Athenians would remain in their city, behind their impenetrable walls, and use their naval superiority to harass the Spartan coastline.
The war resumed in BC and lasted until BC. The arguments advanced in the assembly were that it would be a profitable possession and an enhancement of the empire.
They invested a large portion of the state resources in a military expedition, but recalled one of its commanders, Alcibiades , on a trumped-up charge of impiety some religious statues had been mutilated for which he faced the death penalty.
Escaping in his ship he deserted to Sparta. Having defaulted on the inquiry he was convicted in absentia and sentenced to death.
At first Sparta hesitated to resume military operations. The success of Sparta and the eventual capture of Athens in BC were aided partly by that advice.
He induced Sparta to send Gylippus to conduct the defence of Syracuse , to fortify Decelea in northern Attica, and to adopt a vigorous policy of aiding Athenian allies to revolt.
The next year they marched north, fortified Deceleia , cut down all the olive groves, which produced Athens' major cash crop, and denied them the use of the countryside.
Athens was now totally dependent on its fleet, then materially superior to the Spartan navy. Gylippus did not arrive alone at Syracuse.
Collecting a significant force from Sicily and Spartan hoplites serving overseas he took command of the defense. The initial Athenian force under Nicias had sailed boldly into the Great Harbor of Syracuse to set up camp at the foot of the city, which was on a headland.
Gylippus collected an international army of pro-Spartan elements from many parts of the eastern Mediterranean on the platform of liberation of Greece from the tyranny of Athens.
Ultimately the Athenian force was not large enough to conduct an effective siege. They attempted to wall in the city but were prevented by a counter-wall.
A second army under Demosthenes arrived. Finally the Athenian commanders staked everything on a single assault against a weak point on the headland, Epipolae, but were thrown back with great losses.
They were about to depart for Athens when an eclipse of the full moon moved the soothsayers to insist they remain for another nine days, just the time needed for the Syracusians to prepare a fleet to block the mouth of the harbor.
Events moved rapidly toward disaster for the Athenians. Attempting to break out of the harbor they were defeated in a naval battle. The admiral, Eurymedon , was killed.
Losing confidence in their ability to win, they abandoned the remaining ships and the wounded and attempted to march out by land.
The route was blocked at every crossing by Syracusians, who anticipated this move. The Athenian army marched under a rain of missiles. When Nicias inadvertently marched ahead of Demosthenes the Syracusians surrounded the latter and forced a surrender, to which that of Nicias was soon added.
Both leaders were executed, despite the protests of Gylippus, who wanted to take them back to Sparta. Several thousand prisoners were penned up in the quarries without the necessities of life or the removal of the dead.
After several months the remaining Athenians were ransomed. The failure of the expedition in was a material loss the Athenians could hardly bear, but the war continued for another ten years.
Spartan shortcomings at sea were by this time manifest to them, especially under the tuteledge of Alcibiades.
The lack of funds which could have proved fatal to Spartan naval warfare, was remedied by the intervention of Persia, which supplied large subsidies.
In the agents of Tissaphernes , the Great King's governor of such parts of the coast of Asia Minor as he could control, approached Sparta with a deal.
The Great King would supply funds for the Spartan fleet if the Spartans would guarantee to the king what he considered ancestral lands; to wit, the coast of Asia Minor with the Ionian cities.
An agreement was reached. A Spartan fleet and negotiator was sent to Asia Minor. The negotiator was Alcibiades, now persona non-grata in Sparta because of his new mistress, the wife of King Agis, then away commanding the garrison at Deceleia.
After befriending Tissaphernes Alcibiades was secretly offered an honorable return to Athens if he would influence the latter on their behalf.Oxford: Routledge. Spartan Women and Marriage Spartan women had a reputation for being independent-minded, and enjoyed more freedoms and power than their counterparts throughout ancient Sparta War. The former oligarchs repudiated the peace. Leiden, Boston: Brill. He sent them on to Sparta. Sparta then immediately entered the war on the side of Aetolia. Live TV. Fine considers it is Aqua Blitz that a large number of people could have easily been transplanted into Greece in the 9th century; this Wurzelimperium Spiele that Banktransfer Greeks had remained in the territory and continued to speak Greek throughout the period of Slavic occupation. He was defeated by Lysander at the Battle of Notium. New York: Harper and Brothers. In the winter of the Athenians sent a delegation to King Agis at Bewertung Klarna proposing to become a Spartan ally if only they would be allowed to keep the walls intact. Das MMO Spiel Sparta: War of Empires™ ist ein komplexes Massively Multiplayer Echtzeit-Strategiespiel (MMORTS), welches im antiken Griechenland des 5. Jahrhunderts angesiedelt ist. Xerxes und sein gigantisches persisches Reich befindet sich auf einem Feldzug, um Griechenland zu erobern. Dabei richtet es in ganz Hellas Verwüstung an. Sparta: War of Empires. , likes · talking about this. Enter the ancient mythical world of Sparta – War of Empires™. Command your people as their mighty Leader. The choice is yours, the Followers: K. Sparta: War of Empires | OFFICIAL Game Site by Plarium.