Richard Wagner gilt als Prototyp des deutschen Künstlers: genial, besessen, aufopferungswillig. Doch er und seine Familie verkörpern auch die Schattenseiten. 13 Meisterwerke in chronologischer Reihenfolge. Im Sommer schaut die Musikwelt auf die Oper Leipzig: In der Geburtsstadt Richard Wagners werden alle. Wilhelm Richard Wagner war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller, Theaterregisseur und Dirigent. Mit seinen Musikdramen gilt er als einer der bedeutendsten Erneuerer der europäischen Musik im Jahrhundert.
Richard Wagner 1813-1883Industrie ✓Handwerk ✓Heimwerker: Unsere Oberflächentechnik überzeugt mit Innovationen, Qualität und Effizienz! Jetzt WAGNER Produkte entdecken». Richard Wagner revolutionierte die Oper, beeinflusste die Musikgeschichte, baute sich ein eigenes Festspielhaus und gilt bis heute als typischer Deutscher. von Richard Wagner gegründet, halten sie bis heute am ursprünglichen Vorsatz fest: Aufgeführt werden nur Wagners Opern - und zwar.
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Deutschland Deutsch. Wagner wrote a first draft of the libretto in ,  and he had resolved to develop it during a visit he had made to Venice with the Wesendoncks in , where he was inspired by Titian 's painting The Assumption of the Virgin.
Wagner's fortunes took a dramatic upturn in , when King Ludwig II succeeded to the throne of Bavaria at the age of The young king, an ardent admirer of Wagner's operas, had the composer brought to Munich.
After grave difficulties in rehearsal, Tristan und Isolde premiered at the National Theatre Munich on 10 June , the first Wagner opera premiere in almost 15 years.
The premiere had been scheduled for 15 May, but was delayed by bailiffs acting for Wagner's creditors,  and also because the Isolde, Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld , was hoarse and needed time to recover.
The conductor of this premiere was Hans von Bülow , whose wife, Cosima , had given birth in April that year to a daughter, named Isolde, a child not of Bülow but of Wagner.
Cosima was 24 years younger than Wagner and was herself illegitimate, the daughter of the Countess Marie d'Agoult , who had left her husband for Franz Liszt.
Minna had died of a heart attack on 25 January in Dresden. Wagner did not attend the funeral. He consented only after she had two more children with Wagner; another daughter, named Eva, after the heroine of Meistersinger , and a son Siegfried , named for the hero of the Ring.
The divorce was finally sanctioned, after delays in the legal process, by a Berlin court on 18 July Wagner, settled into his new-found domesticity, turned his energies towards completing the Ring cycle.
He had not abandoned polemics: he republished his pamphlet "Judaism in Music", originally issued under a pseudonym, under his own name in He extended the introduction, and wrote a lengthy additional final section.
The publication led to several public protests at early performances of Die Meistersinger in Vienna and Mannheim.
In , Wagner decided to move to Bayreuth , which was to be the location of his new opera house. The Wagners moved to the town the following year, and the foundation stone for the Bayreuth Festspielhaus "Festival Theatre" was laid.
Wagner initially announced the first Bayreuth Festival, at which for the first time the Ring cycle would be presented complete, for ,  but since Ludwig had declined to finance the project, the start of building was delayed and the proposed date for the festival was deferred.
To raise funds for the construction, " Wagner societies " were formed in several cities,  and Wagner began touring Germany conducting concerts.
Commenting on the struggle to finish the building, Wagner remarked to Cosima: "Each stone is red with my blood and yours".
For the design of the Festspielhaus, Wagner appropriated some of the ideas of his former colleague, Gottfried Semper, which he had previously solicited for a proposed new opera house at Munich.
The Festspielhaus finally opened on 13 August with Das Rheingold , at last taking its place as the first evening of the complete Ring cycle; the Bayreuth Festival therefore saw the premiere of the complete cycle, performed as a sequence as the composer had intended.
Wagner was far from satisfied with the Festival; Cosima recorded that months later, his attitude towards the productions was "Never again, never again!
Following the first Bayreuth Festival, Wagner began work on Parsifal , his final opera. The composition took four years, much of which Wagner spent in Italy for health reasons.
He was once again assisted by the liberality of King Ludwig, but was still forced by his personal financial situation in to sell the rights of several of his unpublished works including the Siegfried Idyll to the publisher Schott.
Wagner wrote a number of articles in his later years, often on political topics, and often reactionary in tone, repudiating some of his earlier, more liberal, views.
These include "Religion and Art" and "Heroism and Christianity" , which were printed in the journal Bayreuther Blätter , published by his supporter Hans von Wolzogen.
Wagner completed Parsifal in January , and a second Bayreuth Festival was held for the new opera, which premiered on 26 May.
After the festival, the Wagner family journeyed to Venice for the winter. Wagner died of a heart attack at the age of 69 on 13 February at Ca' Vendramin Calergi , a 16th-century palazzo on the Grand Canal.
Wagner's musical output is listed by the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis WWV as comprising works, including fragments and projects.
It will consist of 21 volumes 57 books of music and 10 volumes 13 books of relevant documents and texts. As at October , three volumes remain to be published.
The publisher is Schott Music. Wagner's operatic works are his primary artistic legacy. Unlike most opera composers, who generally left the task of writing the libretto the text and lyrics to others, Wagner wrote his own libretti, which he referred to as "poems".
From onwards, he urged a new concept of opera often referred to as "music drama" although he later rejected this term ,  [n 14] in which all musical, poetic and dramatic elements were to be fused together—the Gesamtkunstwerk.
Wagner developed a compositional style in which the importance of the orchestra is equal to that of the singers. The orchestra's dramatic role in the later operas includes the use of leitmotifs , musical phrases that can be interpreted as announcing specific characters, locales, and plot elements; their complex interweaving and evolution illuminates the progression of the drama.
Wagner's earliest attempts at opera were often uncompleted. Die Feen The Fairies , was not performed in the composer's lifetime  and Das Liebesverbot The Ban on Love , was withdrawn after its first performance.
Later in life, Wagner said that he did not consider these works to be part of his oeuvre ;  and they have been performed only rarely in the last hundred years, although the overture to Rienzi is an occasional concert-hall piece.
Die Feen , Das Liebesverbot , and Rienzi were performed at both Leipzig and Bayreuth in to mark the composer's bicentenary. Wagner's middle stage output began with Der fliegende Holländer The Flying Dutchman , , followed by Tannhäuser and Lohengrin These three operas are sometimes referred to as Wagner's "romantic operas".
Although distancing himself from the style of these operas from onwards, he nevertheless reworked both Der fliegende Holländer and Tannhäuser on several occasions.
Wagner's late dramas are considered his masterpieces. Der Ring des Nibelungen , commonly referred to as the Ring or " Ring cycle", is a set of four operas based loosely on figures and elements of Germanic mythology —particularly from the later Norse mythology —notably the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Volsunga Saga , and the Middle High German Nibelungenlied.
In Das Rheingold , with its "relentlessly talky 'realism' [and] the absence of lyrical ' numbers ' ",  Wagner came very close to the musical ideals of his —51 essays.
Die Walküre , which contains what is virtually a traditional aria Siegmund's Winterstürme in the first act , and the quasi- choral appearance of the Valkyries themselves, shows more "operatic" traits, but has been assessed by Barry Millington as "the music drama that most satisfactorily embodies the theoretical principles of 'Oper und Drama' A thoroughgoing synthesis of poetry and music is achieved without any notable sacrifice in musical expression.
While composing the opera Siegfried , the third part of the Ring cycle, Wagner interrupted work on it and between and wrote the tragic love story Tristan und Isolde and his only mature comedy Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg The Mastersingers of Nuremberg , two works that are also part of the regular operatic canon.
Tristan is often granted a special place in musical history; many see it as the beginning of the move away from conventional harmony and tonality and consider that it lays the groundwork for the direction of classical music in the 20th century.
Die Meistersinger was originally conceived by Wagner in as a sort of comic pendant to Tannhäuser. When Wagner returned to writing the music for the last act of Siegfried and for Götterdämmerung Twilight of the Gods , as the final part of the Ring , his style had changed once more to something more recognisable as "operatic" than the aural world of Rheingold and Walküre , though it was still thoroughly stamped with his own originality as a composer and suffused with leitmotifs.
The differences also result from Wagner's development as a composer during the period in which he wrote Tristan , Meistersinger and the Paris version of Tannhäuser.
Wagner took 26 years from writing the first draft of a libretto in until he completed Götterdämmerung in The Ring takes about 15 hours to perform  and is the only undertaking of such size to be regularly presented on the world's stages.
Wagner's final opera, Parsifal , which was his only work written especially for his Bayreuth Festspielhaus and which is described in the score as a " Bühnenweihfestspiel " "festival play for the consecration of the stage" , has a storyline suggested by elements of the legend of the Holy Grail.
It also carries elements of Buddhist renunciation suggested by Wagner's readings of Schopenhauer. Apart from his operas, Wagner composed relatively few pieces of music.
These include a symphony in C major written at the age of 19 , the Faust Overture the only completed part of an intended symphony on the subject , some concert overtures , and choral and piano pieces.
After completing Parsifal , Wagner expressed his intention to turn to the writing of symphonies,  and several sketches dating from the late s and early s have been identified as work towards this end.
For most of these, Wagner wrote or rewrote short passages to ensure musical coherence. The " Bridal Chorus " from Lohengrin is frequently played as the bride's processional wedding march in English-speaking countries.
Wagner was an extremely prolific writer, authoring numerous books, poems, and articles, as well as voluminous correspondence.
His writings covered a wide range of topics, including autobiography, politics, philosophy, and detailed analyses of his own operas.
Wagner planned for a collected edition of his publications as early as ;  he believed that such an edition would help the world understand his intellectual development and artistic aims.
The first public edition with many passages suppressed by Cosima appeared in ; the first attempt at a full edition in German appeared in There have been modern complete or partial editions of Wagner's writings,  including a centennial edition in German edited by Dieter Borchmeyer which, however, omitted the essay "Das Judenthum in der Musik" and Mein Leben.
Ashton Ellis —99 are still in print and commonly used, despite their deficiencies. It is anticipated that the project will be completed by A complete edition of Wagner's correspondence, estimated to amount to between 10, and 12, items, is under way under the supervision of the University of Würzburg.
As of October , 23 volumes have appeared, covering the period to Wagner's later musical style introduced new ideas in harmony, melodic process leitmotif and operatic structure.
Notably from Tristan und Isolde onwards, he explored the limits of the traditional tonal system, which gave keys and chords their identity, pointing the way to atonality in the 20th century.
Some music historians date the beginning of modern classical music to the first notes of Tristan , which include the so-called Tristan chord.
Wagner inspired great devotion. For a long period, many composers were inclined to align themselves with or against Wagner's music.
Wagner made a major contribution to the principles and practice of conducting. His essay "About Conducting"  advanced Hector Berlioz 's technique of conducting and claimed that conducting was a means by which a musical work could be re-interpreted, rather than simply a mechanism for achieving orchestral unison.
He exemplified this approach in his own conducting, which was significantly more flexible than the disciplined approach of Felix Mendelssohn ; in his view this also justified practices that would today be frowned upon, such as the rewriting of scores.
Amongst those claiming inspiration from Wagner's music are the German band Rammstein ,  and the electronic composer Klaus Schulze , whose album Timewind consists of two minute tracks, Bayreuth Return and Wahnfried Friedrich Nietzsche was a member of Wagner's inner circle during the early s, and his first published work, The Birth of Tragedy , proposed Wagner's music as the Dionysian "rebirth" of European culture in opposition to Apollonian rationalist "decadence".
Nietzsche broke with Wagner following the first Bayreuth Festival, believing that Wagner's final phase represented a pandering to Christian pieties and a surrender to the new German Reich.
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